Lighting management: a key topic in the lighting world in future
When halogen and other incandescent lamps are dimmed they also invariably change colour to a warmer colour temperature – known as ‘warm dimming’ or ‘dim to warm’.
This phenomenon is now considered by many as desirable in numerous applications. These include the hospitality and residential sectors, covering hotels, restaurants and private homes in particular, where the purpose of dimming is typically to change the ambience to something that is warmer and ‘cosier’. Clearly a warmer colour temperature will further enhance this effect.
The solution which Reggiani proposes is to combine two chips in the ‘chip-on-board’ LED so that together these can span a lumen package spectrum capable of providing the maximum designed output when required, while also being able to reproduce the same diffused ambient lighting naturally created when dimming incandescent light sources.
In this arrangement, the power source is a single driver that gradually reduces the amperage input according to the light output desired. As the power to the chips is reduced the temperature mix of their individually fixed colour temperatures is automatically balanced. A gradually decreasing sliding scale, starting from high and ending at the lower of the two maximum and minimum values, coincides exactly with the combined degrees of light output and dimming selected.
This technology can offer a dimming range from 100 per cent down to ten per cent with a very smooth colour temperature transition from a maximum of 3000 K to a minimum of 2000 K. Crucially high lumen maintenance is achieved throughout the warranty period of the light source (typically five years).
While the primary purpose of developing such a twin-chip lamp has been to meet the warm dimming needs of the hospitality and residential sectors, the light source also delivers other very worthwhile benefits in terms of both energy performance and lamp life.
International design competition in Rome linked to PLDC
by Joachim Ritter
A national culture is not only made up of positive phases. Nor is it possible to simply deny positive phases or undesirable political developments in a country – or wilfully destroy cultural heritage in order to eliminate the evidence of a specific era. Monuments that are thousands of years old as well as architecture from the past few decades are an expression of social and political processes and thus deserve to be preserved. Architecture can serve as a positive reminder of bygone times, but also of a warning of less positive historic events.
The EUR district in Rome features a number of examples of the fascist architecture that date back to Mussolini times. Thank goodness we can now put this chapter in our history behind us. Now, more than half a century later, the time has come to accept this architecture for what it is, and regard it objectively for its historic significance. The new conference centre in Rome, designed by Massimiliano Fuksas, gives the City of Rome good reason to initiate this process.
The international design competition for a state-of-the-art lighting scheme for the EUR district addresses the exciting issue of culture, architecture and the significance of lighting in context. In cooperation with the National Council of Italian Architects, Planners, Landscapers and Curators, The Department for the Environment and Sustainability in Rome, AIDI, APIL and the Chamber of Architects, Planners, Landscapers and Curators in Rome, the City of Rome is inviting interdisciplinary teams of planners to tackle this challenge and submit realisable design concepts. How can light preserve the history of a city vividly and meaningfully and at the same time lend an urban quarter a new and modern identity through contemporary design? Light has the power to put architecture in a social and political context.
The competition is open to interdisciplinary teams comprising at least one architect and one lighting designer. As the initiators and organisers of PLDC, we are delighted to have helped provide the impetus to make this design competition happen and thus provide an example to the Italian lighting design community, through the international context, of the changes the lighting design profession is currently undergoing. Through this competition, the international lighting design community can prove that lighting designed by a qualified professional creates added value for the culture of a nation.
We therefore invite all architects and lighting designers to take part in this unique design competition and submit feasible concepts for the given site. The more interest this generates, and the greater the response, the more powerful the arguments will be for the significance of the lighting designer as part of the value chain to deliver quality architectural spaces.
The results of the competition will be presented at PLDC 2015 in Rome and the winners will be announced in a special ceremony. This means that PLDC will not only continue to gain significance with regard to knowledge and trends in lighting design, but also when it comes to official recognition of the profession, thus strengthening its position as an international platform for lighting designers, architects, clients, education and research, the lighting industry and political bodies.
More information and the full Call for Entries will be available from the end of May on this page.
2. Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana
Palazzo dello Sport
Obelisco di Marconi
6. Centro Congressi Nuvola
The Florio Wine Cellars in Marsala
Located on the seafront in Marsala, in spaces once used as a warehouse by the Florio Wine Cellars, Florio Terrace is a project that successfully combines architecture with art and design, reinterpreting the relationship between industrial and contemporary elements.
The structure comprises two different areas: the hall on the ground floor, and the terrace overlooking the sea on the first floor.
The materials chosen distinguish the space by giving it a modern, unfinished feel: sand and cement screed, bare concrete and plaster walls, deliberately left unfinished like the pillars revealed during demolition, which have been left in their attractively imperfect state.
The premises, with its play on volumes and equilibrium, is similar to an art gallery: the staircase between the two floors is an articulated element made of iron, painted glossy white with black steps. The balustrade features different sized holes and cut-outs. Under natural light by day and artificial light by night, this design feature gives rise to discreet but fascinating lighting effects.
Perfectly integrated in this setting are elegant 10 watt and 26 watt directional spotlights with a CRI of up to 94. The white embossed finish of the fixtures blends seamlessly with the texture of the walls, and the use of the product in both white as well as black areas creates balances and contrasts that define the spaces even more powerfully.
Next to the staircase there are three chairs/sculptures in red that allude to the three wine labels: Corvo, Florio and Duca di Salaparuta. The stairs lead up to the splendid 500 square metre terrace with a view of the sea, marked by white gazebos and furnished with sofas, armchairs and tables.
Architect: Franco Marabelli,
In collaboration with: architect Silvio Maglione, and set designer Lino Colombo
Lighting design: Lorenzo Bruscaglioni
Photos: Gionata Xerra
by Joachim Ritter
The new lighting for The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci met with the approval of experts from the lighting field.
The existing lighting for The Last Supper could only be described as insipid and washed out. It certainly did not whet anyone’s appetite for anything, spiritual or otherwise. Not surprising given that the light sources used to light – or should one say afflict – da Vinci’s masterpiece in the Santa Maria delle Grazie Dominican convent were fluorescent lamps … And we all know that fluorescent light does very little to enhance the appearance of a meal, let alone the people sat at the table.
In the last days of March, a special event was staged to officially launch the new lighting scheme for the wondrous painting for the public. Just four weeks before the opening of Expo 2015 in Milan, and two days before Maundy Thursday, state-of-the-art lighting demonstrated that the historic occasion depicted, and the items of food on the table, can look as fresh as they would have done almost 2000 years ago. It is all a question of light, and in this case of digital light. Of course, we are not talking about the display of fruit and vegetables in a modern shopping environment, but about the overall atmosphere in a space in which, according to Christian belief, an historic event took place.
At the Last Supper Jesus took bread and shared it with his twelve apostles, saying “Do this in remembrance of me”. The meal they took together thus became a symbol of his continuing presence in his community, and the words spoken and actions undertaken have been adopted in the Christian belief as part of the Holy Communion, sometimes also referred to as the Eucharist or the Lord’s Supper. The painting is very large: 422 by 904 centimetres and shows Jesus with his twelve disciples at the moment immediately after he had revealed to them: “One of you will betray me”. The painting is regarded as a milestone of the Renaissance period, because the accurate perspective depth it portrays had a tremendous impact on painting in the western world.
The work was created by Leonardo da Vinci between the years 1494 and 1498, commissioned by the Duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza. And now the masterpiece has been relit in close collaboration with Fabio Aramini, who is Head of Photometry and Lighting Design at the Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro in Rome. The restoration also incorporated retouching the colours.
In the picture there are three windows in the background. The wall on the right from the perspective of the viewer is brighter, indicating the influx of daylight and the position of the sun. This therefore meant that this part of the painting needed to be more brightly lit. This idea was reiterated in the refectory in the monastery where the painting is. All except one of the windows in the refectory are shaded. Incident daylight can only be seen on the right-hand side when facing the painting.
When painting this masterpiece, Leonardo did not trust in traditional, resistant fresco techniques that meant the paint had to be applied quickly while the plaster was still wet. Instead, he decided to experiment with a new method (fresco-secco technique) that would allow him to continue perfecting the details of the painting even after the plaster had dried.
Unfortunately, Leonardo’s experiment proved to be far from ideal and the painting soon began to deteriorate. Over the centuries, this meant the painting needed to be restored on numerous occasions. In 1999, the latest restoration project, which took over twenty years to complete, finally unveiled what was left of the original painting after carefully removing the clumsy attempts at restoration made previously.
The new LED lighting system brings richer colour to The Last Supper while also guaranteeing better light distribution control and the correct conservation of the painting thanks to unchanging light levels and a consistent reduction in the heat dissipated inside the room. Thermographic assessment and spectramorphic survey values have been achieved that are 30 times lower than the levels stipulated by Italian and European standards for highly sensitive artworks. All the photometric, thermal and microclimatic values registered were conducted and certified by the Photometry Laboratory for the Higher Institute for Conservation and Restoration or ISCR.
The colour rendering index (CRI or Ra) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to faithfully reproduce the colours of objects. In order to compare the colour rendering properties of each light source objectively, the standard CIE measuring method operates on a scale from 0 to 100 (poor to excellent). The Palco floodlights used to illuminate The Last Supper are fitted with continuous spectrum CoB LEDs with a high blue radiation presence and ample warm light tone. The colour temperature is 3400K.
The new lighting systems for the art works and their environment improve energy efficiency and reduce absorbed power (more than 80%) by helping conserve these masterpieces in the best way possible. The decision to replace halogen lamps with new LED products has reduced the power dissipated by the system from 3400 watt/h to 570 watt/h.
At PLDC Fabio Aramini and Piergiovanni Ceregioli from iGuzzini will present the design process in a 45-minute presentation.
Client: Architectural and Landscapes Heritage Office for the provinces of Milan, Bergamo, Como, Lodi, Monza, Pavia, Sondrio and Varese.
Lighting solution: iGuzzini Research and Development Centre, the Higher Institute for Conservation and Restoration (ISCR), the Architectural and Landscapes Heritage Office for the provinces of Milan, Bergamo, Como, Lodi, Monza, Pavia, Sondrio and Varese.
Electrical installation: Tecnosaier srl – Lucio and Fabio Pironi.
by Joachim Ritter
Let me try to explain why I have a problem with this initiative…
Many people in our society do not eat healthily. What they eat is too fat or too sweet, or they eat too fast or too much. And meat? Way too much compared to what our bodies really need. But we know all this. And it doesn’t change anything, or this state of affairs, if we eat badly 364 days a year and eat nothing at all on one day. And for all those who can provide seventeen good reasons for eating like they do in order to clear their conscience: forget it!
It’s not much different with Earth Hour. At the initiative of the WWF, more than 7000 cities around the globe switch the lights off for one hour every year. How daft is that? It certainly won’t help counteract global warming, nor will it influence the way people think about electricity or light. We are not changing anything – nothing at all. It’s like some kind of ‘remembrance hour’, or a big nudge to make people think about wasting energy for 60 minutes. How hypocritical is that?!
Perhaps we should talk more about light, or explain why designed lighting, or purposefully applied light, is important. Good lighting is a social necessity and not just messing around with electric light sources.
Nobody would dream of not driving their car for an hour or, what would be substantially more efficient, switching off all televisions around the world for an hour. That would be pretty easy to manage, too: all TV channels cancel their TV programmes for an hour. No TV programmes to choose from, no TV. That would save energy like crazy.
I would go as far as to say that the whole thing is not about energy saving at all, but is an attempt to demonstrate that lighting is nonsense – something we can do without. And that is indeed hypocritical, people.
Especially in 2015, the UNESCO International Year of Light …
Art installation and photos: Studio Roosegaarde
Daan Roosegaarde’s temporary installation “Waterlicht” which could be seen in Weestervoort/NL from 26. February to 1. March, 2015, was referred to by many visitors as “the Northern Lights of the Netherlands”. But the project that was realised along a section of the River Ijssel was not only designed to be a visual delight: Waterlicht was indeed a breathtaking visual experience in blue light, but was actually designed to draw attention to the work, energy and costs incurred to protect the parts of the country below sea level from flooding. Walking along the dyke, the view of the sparkling lights was designed to remind the viewer of light reflected on water. Visitors could actually walk down into the flooded area as if they were submerging into an underwater world.
Motorised LED projectors generated the virtual flood across a site of over four acres: curved lines of blue light hovered dramatically over the dyke. The installation, which Daan Roosegaarde realised in collaboration with the Dutch water board for the Rhine and Ijssel, was intended to demonstrate how difficult it is to control the forces of nature.
There is no denying that the visual dimensions of the virtual flood were reminiscent of the northern lights that can be seen at certain times of the year at high latitudes. In this case, spectacular to the eye and food for thought on environmental factors.
Official PLDC warm-up in collaboration with UL
by Joachim Ritter
The call for a minimum level of quality is becoming louder. Many designers and clients feel overwhelmed and unable to cope with the issue of whether they have managed to reach the level of safety stipulated for the products they specify or apply. The reasons for more stringent quality management requirements lie, on the one hand, in the risks arising from a global market and, on the other hand, in the competition through the price pressure from the Far East, which is swamping the globe. Strangely enough, very few people link the price of a product with the quality of that product. As a result, even high-quality suppliers of lighting solutions are compelled to succumb to lower pricing and forgo larger profit margins. There comes a point, however, where someone has to put his foot down with a firm hand. Especially when the quality of light is not only a question of technology but also a human-oriented issue.
The term Human Centric Lighting (HCL) is widely used by high-quality suppliers of lighting products and systems right now… and actually describes the work a lighting designer does pretty well: designing spaces for humans. This is therefore also an argument for gaining more recognition for the lighting design profession – a big chance to come nearer to establishing the profession – provided lighting designers can prove they know how to design lighting in order to satisfy the demands of this new approach.
Manufacturers of high-grade HCL products and product ranges are prepared to go to considerable lengths to ensure their quality products end up in the hands of qualified designers. Otherwise they would once again be compelled – as they were in the seventies – to continue to activate, or educate, their own design departments. That would be like making the same mistake all over again, which neither the lighting design community nor the lighting industry really want, but which will become unavoidable if the independent lighting designers don’t deliver.
Who is in a position to offer Human Centric Lighting products on the market today is another question. UL stands for Underwriters Laboratories and is originally from the USA. UL is a global independent safety science company with more than a century of expertise innovating safety solutions from the public adoption of electricity to new breakthroughs in sustainability, renewable energy and nanotechnology. Dedicated to promoting safe living and working environments, UL helps safeguard people, products and places in important ways, facilitating trade and providing peace of mind.
In the field of lighting UL is now globally promoting new standards and offering services to certify quality products and services. We as the organisers of PLDC 2015 are happy to welcome UL as a sponsoring partner of the event in Rome. In collaboration, we are also staging a warm-up in Milan together within the framework of Euroluce. Please note down the 15. April, 2015.
UL services and expertise bring new opportunities to light.
Rapidly evolving thinking about energy efficiency and public safety – along with exciting technological advances – is driving the evolution of the lighting industry, providing greater opportunities and growing challenges. Designers and manufacturers can leverage UL’s safety science expertise, worldwide presence, and active involvement in the lighting industry to gain accelerated access to the global marketplace and to meet regulatory requirements.
Leverage UL’s global lighting expertise in testing, certification and standards development activities.
UL testing, certification and global market access services provide efficient, cost-effective entrance to over 50 countries.
UL works to build relationships with the entire lighting supply chain, including manufacturers, retailers, showrooms, designers, regulatory authorities, government agencies and consumers. UL is the only independent laboratory currently serving on the Zhaga Consortium Steering Committee, an industry group that is developing specifications to enable interchangeability for LED light sources made by multiple manufacturers.
UL meets the needs of the lighting industry so effectively because they know the industry from the inside out. Their active leadership in lighting standards development committees and industry technical task groups and their participation in global industry conferences and trade shows allow them to deepen their understanding of the ever-evolving lighting industry and to share this critical business intelligence with customers.
In response to the high-pressure deadlines that are part of doing business in this industry, they have further enhanced their capacity to accommodate short turnaround time requests. UL’s five state-of-the-art performance and energy efficiency laboratories, located around the globe, help speed the testing process. Test results can be delivered in just five business days for IEC’s LM-79 testing and in seven days for DesignLights Consortium testing.
The breadth of UL service offerings enables customers to take advantage of cost-saving bundling offers and to eliminate unnecessary redundant testing. Thus customers can meet the performance and energy efficiency requirements in support of programmes such as ENERGY STAR®, California Energy Commission, DesignLights Consortium, Lighting Facts, NRCan and Zhaga. Additionally, UL regularly conducts testing to IESNA LM-79, IESNA LM-80, IESNA LM-82 and fluorescent lamp ballast testing requirements. UL’s trusted expertise and network of accredited global laboratories convincingly demonstrates adherence to safety and energy efficiency standards to regulatory authorities.
Anyone who is interested in learning more about UL is welcome to attend the official PLDC warm-up on the occasion of Euroluce 2015 in Milan. Please register here. Tickets are limited.
An interactive room full of digital flowers
Installation and photos: teamLab
The light art installation designed by the multidisciplinary design studio teamLab is entitled “Flowers and People, Cannot be Controlled but Live Together, for Eternity”. Together with fourteen other works, this installation is part of an exhibition of digital, interactive works of art at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan) in Tokyo/J. Inspired by the flora native to the region around Tokyo, teamLab have designed an interactive space that addresses the way flowers bloom and wither, and are replaced by new buds – in a perpetual cycle. The idea behind the carpet of digital blossoms is that man cannot control nature, but can influence it and co-exist with it.
Computer-aided real-time renderings of flowers on the floor change algorithmically every hour. Once a visitor enters the installation, he becomes a part of it: sensors register his movements, which cause flowers to blossom or wither away. The floral images that are generated are always new. The walls in the space are mirrored to generate the effect of infinity.
Food for thought:
We can impact nature by applying the latest technologies, but natural phenomena, such as daylight, is basically beyond our control.
The team behind the Chinese fashion label Dazzle have enhanced the reputation of their prestigious brand by opening two new-look stores. The concept reflects the brand’s desire to maintain a feminine touch, expressed unconventionally in fashion terms, whilst at the same time conveying the exclusivity of the products on display.
The first Dazzle store, located in Shanghai’s Kerry Center, comprises an extremely dynamic space featuring clean design in a style which might be termed baroque minimalist. The layout of the space is developed around rhomboid-shaped volumes with rounded corners which divide the spatial layout, creating pure white partitions which, reminiscent of a theatre stage, cut through the original store and build a powerful space.
The lighting design concept features a cove lighting system with a series of concealed Yori LED projectors, which winds its way through the softened volumes of the architectural space. The luminaires have a colour temperature of 3000K and a colour rendering index of >90 to truly showcase the garments. They boast a power consumption, including driver-related loss, of just 23.9 watts for a luminous flux of 2028 lumens from the LED source. Unimosa adjustable ceiling recessed luminaires complete the set-up.
The lighting design comprises layers of light, on the one hand lighting up the space and emphasising the materiality and texture of the partitions, and on the other hand creating accents and highlighting the colours and materials of the garments and accessories on display.
The second store, Diamond-Dazzle, is located inside Beijing’s Oriental Plaza Shopping Mall. The style of the space has a strong European palace vibe, with the various rooms connected via brass doorways. The ceilings are different in each space, enriched with classic-pattern plaster motifs, while the floor is embellished with stone inserts and carpets. The rooms have received marble and plaster panels in the shape of curtains to reflect the drapery typical of aristocratic homes. The use of warm grey with tones of pink and white creates a luxurious, feminine ambience.
Here too, the lighting design integrates perfectly with the shapes of the architectural space. The LED luminaires are mounted inside coves in the ceiling, in niches in the walls, or recessed into the ceiling. Inside the coves, Yori projectors with articulated brackets and Unimosa recessed ceiling luminaires offer a colour temperature of 3000K, a colour rendering index of >90 and a lumen package of 93 lm/W.
As in the first store, the lighting design is composed of layers of light to showcase the garments and articles on display, without undermining the values expressed by the architecture. In both stores the luminaires are equipped with a selection of accessories, shields and diffusers to reduce glare and improve the customer’s in-store experience.
Location: Shanghai / Beijing, China
Interior design: Cristofori Santi Architetti
Lighting design: Rossi Lighting
Photos: Dazzle; Cristofori Santi
Luminaires: Reggiani Illuminazione
Holographic light sculptures
Installation and photos: Roseline de Thélin
Ghostly, not of this world, strangely fascinating – is how one might attempt to describe “Homos Luminosos”, light sculptures by the French born artist Roseline de Thélin. Hundreds of optical fibres suspended in circles from the ceiling are cracked at specific points along their length to generate holographic light sculptures. The cracks in the optical fibres give rise to tiny dots of light that together form larger-than-life human shapes apparently floating in mid-air. The installations are inspired by astronomy and quantum physics and play with the viewer’s perception, creating stunning illusions.
Roseline de Thélin works with light both as a medium and as a subject, creating installations and light sculptures by exploiting the scientific properties of light: reflection, refraction, conduction and transparency. She particularly likes working with fibre optics. To her they represent the endless possibilities of photons.
Roseline de Thélin’s works are regularly exhibited around the world – soon in Charlotte, North Carolina/USA.