by Joachim Ritter
We all know what it means to be colour-blind. At least, we think we do.
A person who is “colour-blind” is not able to see colours. Well, that’s a simple way of putting it. If we take a closer look at this colour vision deficiency, we learn that there are two kinds of “colour blindness”, or to be more exact partial colour blindness (the difficulty in distinguishing between red and green, or blue and yellow) and total colour blindness. In general, we tend to describe people who cannot distinguish between red and green as being “colour-blind”. That is not correct, however. On the one hand, as a rule red-green colour blindness is only partial colour blindness and not total colour blindness, and on the other hand it means only two of the three colour receptors in the eye are defective.
Given that only five to nine per cent of the male population is known to suffer from red-green colour blindness, we can safely say that we tend to use the term “colour blindness” wrongly. Medically speaking, real “colour blindness” (or to use the Latin term, “achromatopsia”) actually occurs very seldom. In these cases the person concerned is really not able to see any colours at all. Which means that the person’s vision has to rely on the light-dark receptors. True colour blindness frequently leads to a noticeable deterioration in the person’s vision overall.
Neil Harbisson is colour-blind – 100 per cent. He has not been able to see colours since the day he was born. He does not know what a red heart means or a blue ocean or green bread. He does not know these things and never has. But he can hear colours. At the age of 21 he had a probe implanted in his brain. A head-mounted antenna senses the colours directly in front of him and converts them in real-time into sound waves through bone conduction. The first impression we get of Neil Harbisson is that he looks like some kind of alien, with an antenna perched on the top of his head.
Neil Harbisson perceives his surroundings quite differently from the majority of people on this planet. He has never experienced differentiating between white people and black people. Judging by the sounds his brain receives skin colour is only evident in different shades of orange. Even if you initially regard the physical defect Neil lives with as a disadvantage, this is the point where you can say that he has a clear advantage over all other people: he knows that there is no basic difference in skin colour itself; it is only a matter of colour intensity. Which is naturally also evident within the groups of so-called “white” or “black” people.
You can discover more about Neil Harbisson and what other advantages he has gained through his special situation and how he decided to cope with it at PLDC, where he will be giving a presentation. It is not every day that you can enjoy such an inspirational experience.
And by the way: if you try to talk to Neil Harbisson about technical lighting standards, it just brings a smile to his lips.
Neil Harbisson is presenting at PLDC on Saturday at 10.15
… between enhancing or manipulating with light?
by Joachim Ritter
Modern lighting design is becoming more complex. That is good news. It acknowledges the importance of light and its effect on architecture, human beings, flora and fauna. It actually makes no difference to how light impacts human beings. That applies, the same as ever. In a few years’ time people will be questioning how it was ever possible to design lighting for over a century not knowing or believing that light has an effect on human beings. However, digital technology now gives us the opportunity to design better and healthier lighting.
Having that opportunity does not mean that we have the skills to implement it. In that respect, good lighting designers who were leaders in the field 30 years ago and may well be still practising today need to be open to acquiring this new know-how. Thirty years ago it may have sufficed to do great design work based on passion and commitment – and the designs were generally regarded as being good. But those same designs today would probably often be assessed differently. The ability to be a lighting designer is no longer a gift bestowed on you at birth. It is now a discipline which involves design issues being subject to rules and regulations. What designers out there currently dispose over all the required know-how?
The good news is: if this is recognised by society as a whole, it must mean that there are indeed specialists who have acquired the knowledge and skills required to design lighting. Specialists who deserve to be recognised as such. In other words: we have never been closer to gaining recognition for the profession than we are today. And every day means one step further towards this goal!
We know that we can enhance people’s feeling of well-being through purposefully designed lighting, lighting that can positively affect human beings physically and mentally. And yet every opportunity also incorporates a hidden risk. At what point does the impact light can have cease to support human behaviour and begin to manipulate? Doping is quite rightly frowned upon in the sporting world, but no one has yet given any thought to using light as a means of doping. Why not? After all, light is able to influence and change our natural bio-rhythms. In the meantime we know that this can be detrimental to our health. We know we can increase schoolchildren’s ability to concentrate using light, although we also all know that many children are not able to concentrate to the full between 8 am and 9 am – because of their natural bio-rhythm. We manipulate shift workers by subjecting them to light levels during the night in order to maintain their productivity, even though we are aware of the fact that night shifts – or simulated day shift conditions at night – can influence the development of cancer. And we talk quite openly about the power of light to positively influence people’s buying behaviour in order to increase sales, although we do not really need many of the items that are so attractively displayed, and purchasing more only contributes towards aggravating environmental issues. We create fascinating lighting installations in shopping malls although we have grown up in natural forests which have shaped our evolution.
I am not saying that we should not apply light to an optimum. I am also not saying that we should not pursue the Human Centric Lighting path when designing lighting. But I do believe that we should be very clear about the current situation and continue to reflect on the power the lighting designer can have if he/she is able to take advantage of all the opportunities that science is putting on our plate when it comes to light.
Because if we are aware of the responsibility we bear, then every well designed shop lighting solution has the right to be realised – to enhance the leisure aspect and experience factor of shopping – the same as any lighting scheme designed to support our circadian rhythm in compliance with our natural environment.
With the knowledge we are gaining about the impact of light, and the technical possibilities that are now readily available, we are walking a very fine line between supporting and manipulating human existence.
This, at any rate, is the insight we gathered as an editorial team while working on the latest issue of the PLD no 98. Or at least these are the thoughts which will hopefully lead us to developing more insight in future. But definitely it is a topic which will be raised more and more, and for sure at PLDC 2015 in Rome.
“Nightscape 2050 – a dialogue between Cities・Light・People in Future”
Berlin >>> Singapore >>> Hong Kong >>> Tokyo
by Lighting Planners Associates (LPA)
Kaoru Mende is regarded as one of the world’s leading lighting designers. Together with his team from LPA – Lighting Planners Associates – he has realised more than 500 projects since the design practice was founded in 1990. This year marks his company’s 25th anniversary. Already a great work indeed. And yet reducing Kaoru Mende’s achievements exclusively to his design experience is really only half the story. He also deserves acclaim for his work as an educator, a pragmatist and a visionary, all qualities that demonstrate his true grandeur – and a practically perfect combination when it comes to staging a travelling exhibition about the future of lighting design in Berlin, Singapore, Hong Kong and his native city Tokyo. The exhibition is intended to be one of its kind on Light and Lighting sharing visions of the future of lighting, and the way designers can imagine using light with interested visitors.
How will we interact with light in the year 2050? In the exhibition Kaoru Mende and his team wanted to create a unique experience in which they share their ideas and thoughts with others. Rather than trying to predict the future, the goal was to seek discussion on how light may impact, or influence, our ‘way of being’ in future.
Nightscape 2050 – Theme and Concept
While creating an exhibition to share “hope and dreams of the future for light and human beings” with the visitors, Mende also wants to draw attention to the realities we are facing.
The exhibition is experiential, educational, imaginative:
• experiential – visitors are able to feel the different lighting scenarios proposed
• educational – learning from nightscapes around the world and holding thought-provoking interviews with visionaries such as architect Toyo Ito, physicist and researcher Shuji Nakamura, and industrial designer Ingo Maurer
• imaginative – sparking the imagination of children through workshops to provide hope for the future.
The exhibition also represents clearly the philosophy of the design practice, which designs unusual living environments using light and underline the architecture as well as the lighting culture of the site or location.
LPA work on a wide range of projects from residential, hotel, commercial, public spaces, landscape to full-scale urban lighting projects, and have received numerous international lighting design awards.
LPA is also very active in promoting the appreciation of lighting culture and an awareness of good lighting through its non-profit wing, The Lighting Detectives. This forum gives the general public the opportunity to take part in discussions and workshops, helping them to understand how to better evaluate light and lighting. The annual Transnational Lighting Detectives event has been organised in over ten cities including Tokyo, New York City, Stockholm, Singapore, Beijing and Madrid.
The exhibition is due to open in August 2015 in Berlin and ends in June 2016 in Tokyo.
A book about the common sense of lighting designers
A critique on Svante Pettersson’s Buch “See the Light” by Joachim Ritter
Imagine you get together with all your friends and colleagues from the lighting design community to sit around and talk about light. Through such activities you feel strengthened in your opinion or you learn something new, you describe what you think and hear what you have never put in words, developing your skills and beliefs in the process. A great feeling. Learning (not only) by seeing! Through the eye, but also through the heart.
By the same token you could sit yourself down and read Svante Pettersson’s book “See the Light”. It has the same effect as if you were discussing with and listening to colleagues. “See the Light” is a great work, a generously illustrated book with copious informative captions explaining how light works and how it triggers our emotions. It is not a work that describes and defines light in numbers, as is the case in other more technical fields, but is rather about the experiences the author, Svante, has made with light – as we all have done – and wants to share with us. I say Svante, because through the book he comes across as a close friend and a great colleague, one who feels what light is all about and can put it in a nutshell. Each of the 14 chapters is like a segment of the lighting design world, with stories in words and pictures.
“See the Light” is a standard work, a highly inspirational book about light, the philosophy of light and the art of getting to know your visual sense. The latter is especially important, because everything that is described here is about our “sense of sight”, as it is referred to in the book – which is actually common sense.
The book comprises 14 chapters over 310 pages, beginning – not surprisingly – with Nordic Light, the light that obviously made the greatest impression on Svante, and continuing with topics such as Shadows, Glare, Light moments, the Tools of light, and many more.
You should not read this book if you do not have the aptitude to follow what Svante is referring to in his reports, because you are dependent on technical data and numbers to be able to realise your designs. The only numbers you will find in this book are the numbers of the pages. And yet, if you wish to engage with lighting design at this level and find that after reading the book you have indeed understood how light works, you will be in a position to design more successfully and with more effect than you have ever done basing everything on lighting metrics and standards from the start.
I would definitely recommend this book and even go as far as to say it is a must – not just to buy and stick on the shelf, but for everyday use on your desk. Because, when necessary, this work can help you to regain a human-scale approach to design, when you have lost yourself in the plethora of engineering values, standards and regulations.
Reading this book means living what we like about life: learning by seeing and feeling, and on all accounts with a smile on your face.
See The Light
310 pages with many coloured pictures
Arvinius + Orfeus AB
The church of San Paolo, located in the historic centre of Casale Monferrato, was built by the Barnabites in around 1586. The Greek-cross interior contains rich artistic heritage, featuring, amongst others, works by Guglielmo Caccia, “il Moncalvo”, and pieces by Frans Van de Kasteele, while the aisle houses the Santa Casa della Vergine di Loreto Chapel, dating back to the seventeenth century.
The project of relamping the building was developed to reduce energy consumption and introduce lighting on a human scale, dedicated to the liturgy and to enhance a space of enormous symbolic value.
The artificial lighting was designed to integrate into the space, illuminating the same parts of the interior that the original builders enhanced using natural light: the altar, the ambon and the baptistery.
The guidelines laid down by the Italian Episcopal Conference (CEI) were adhered to. These required the lighting to meet the needs of religious celebration, not cause damage to the building or the works contained therein, and allow for tourist use.
Religious celebration requires first of all light for the priest to deliver his sermons, but also for his assistants and the congregation. The lighting of the presbytery must allow the celebrant to carry out his duties, and must stand out over that of the main body of the church in order to focus the attention of the congregation on the service in progress.
Additionally, the lighting must highlight the works of art and the architecture of the church, encouraging visitors to appreciate the religious aspect of the place by focusing on its core elements. Special attention was paid to ensuring that the vault lighting was not so severe as to damage the frescoes.
The Yori projectors with articulated arms were the perfect solution here; their mounting system and design make them ideal for installation in eaves, while the direction flexibility and reduced size enables them to be integrated discreetly within the setting.
The 10 Watt and 22 Watt versions were used to create optimum accent lighting for the building’s various artistic and architectural features, enhanced by a high colour rendering index using the latest generation LEDs (CRI>90). These light sources also minimise energy consumption, 11.4 Watts and 23.9 Watts respectively for the two versions.
The overall result is effective and pleasant, avoiding glare, not lighting unnecessary vertical surfaces and reducing shadows, which were previously quite marked. The efficiency achieved thanks to the new installation has also enabled significant savings in energy, around 60 per cent compared to the previous system.
Client: Church of San Paolo (former convent), Casale Monferrato (Alessandria), Rector – Canon Pier Paolo Busto
Location: Casale Monferrato
Architects: Luisa Papotti, Stefano Borghini
Lighting design: Prof. Marco Palandella & Roberto Corradini – Casale Monferrato (Alessandria)
Office of Cultural Heritage and Sacred Arts, Diocese of Casale Monferrato:
Manager – Father Renato Dalla Costa
Surveyor – Alan Zavattaro
Specialist architectural and historical consultancy:
Arch. Raffaella Rolfo – Trino (Vercelli)
Marco Guaschino Impianti Elettrici – Casale Monferrato (Alessandria)
Product applied: Reggiani
by Joachim Ritter
How wonderful is that! They are still some examples to be found: installations that reveal what light means and demonstrate that artificial or electric light can be good, but is no real substitute for daylight.
Together with metal sculptor Ulysse Lacoste and Laure Qaremy, the French architects from Atelier YokYok have designed a charming structure made of threads to create a tunnel-vault look-alike installation which they have called “Les Voûtes Filantes” (The Shooting Vaults – a play on words in French related to shooting stars). The walk-in installation can be seen – and experienced – in the sixteenth-century gothic-style cloister in St. Stephen’s Cathedral in Cahors/F until the end of June. The project is one of three winning entries in the landscape garden competition that Cahors stages every year.
Thin blue strings are tightly woven to form tunnel-like passageways along the four main paths which run from the corners of the cloister and culminate at a circular flower bed in the centre of the garden. Archways representing different types of historic arches (ogee arch, lancet arch) form the entrances to the passages. The eye perceives an interplay of light and form, and the blue woven architectural forms that cover the passageways are seen as being dematerialised by the light. The tunnel-like passageways, though purposefully shaped, are light and transparent, and invite people to wander in. Their first response is to smile, as a sign of delight.
The woven tunnel shapes create an additional layer to the cloister, as if leading to a secret garden. The arches at either end of the threaded tunnel-vault structures do not match from the point of view of architectural style, which in fact adds to the overall whimsical effect. Visitors entering the semi-transparent covered passageways are immersed in a dream world which is flooded with natural light. The blue hue of the threads together with the daylight generate a wonderfully light and almost surreal effect: a kind of symbiosis of heaven and the glorious colour of summer flowers.
It is the combination of transparency and reflection, and the relationship between light and fine material that make this project so special. We all know that light itself is not visible, that it is only the surface or the material that reflects the light which is visible to the eye. In this case it is the threads, and the tiniest of fibres, that create the arc of tension and contribute to the magnificent quality of the whole.
But there is a further question that arises when viewing this exemplary work: to what extent could this quality be achieved using electric light? A rhetorical thought, given that it is clear to see that this is hardly feasible. In other words: it is good to know that no matter how good the light source is – be it an LED or a conventional incandescent lamp – and no matter what excellent lighting technology has been applied – be it a point source or wide-area lighting – this level of quality is not achievable using an electric lighting solution. It may be possible to achieve a different kind of quality, but not the quality we see here, which is determined by the Light Loci and the uncopiability of daylight.
It is, of course, the light spectrum, but also the general lighting provided by the sun, that delivers this quality and uniformity. A level of uniformity that is only possible thanks to the enormous distance between the light source and the space, or object, to be lit.
A fabulous interpretation of its big sister made of stone, which surrounds the cloister garden! And at the same time a complete contrast, a counterpole, that lends the architecture a certain lightness – because of the light, naturally.
Text: Joachim Ritter
The call for recognition of the lighting designer, his/her profession and the value he/she brings to a project is becoming increasingly louder. There appears to be a general consensus on this in the lighting world, possibly with the exception of architects, clients, the industry, some associations, and all those who claim to design lighting, although they are not qualified to offer high-quality design services. You don’t understand what I am talking about? Well, let me try to explain where I am coming from.
A lot of people wax lyrical about lighting design being incredibly important and gaining in significance. It is not difficult to find a consensus in that sense. What is difficult is when you try to construe what people actually understand by “a professional lighting designer”.
Let’s start with those who are regarded as being representative of their kind. When it comes to “recognition of the profession” the International Association of Lighting Designers, IALD have no true understanding of what that really means. What they understand is the recognition of their members as professionals and of their association as the only association worldwide that can define lighting design quality. This cannot be enforced politically but, in the apparent absence of any alternatives, sounds good enough.
In their recently published brochure on this year’s IALD Awards it say: “Advantages of membership: Be recognised as one of the best lighting designers in the world”. Is it really so easy to be recognised as one of the world’s best lighting designers? I could name 100 lighting designers who are not members of the IALD, but who are still great lighting designers.
Apart from the fact that the winners of the Radiance Award 2015 were not IALD members, and two of the three Awards of Excellence winners were apparently also not IALD members.
The IALD’s heavily promoted Certified Lighting Designer (CLD) programme is not going to change much either. Why not? Because it is a voluntary measure and not required by law to qualify as a Professional. I can still work as a lighting designer or call myself one – whether I am certified or not. In addition, the assessment is carried out by peers, you might even say competitors on the market. I am not implying that designers may be purposefully wrongly assessed by their peers, but such a system is not sufficient, or well-founded enough, to achieve official recognition of a profession. A doctor does not become a doctor because his colleagues or peers recognise him as such. He is obliged to prove he is qualified to practise as a doctor in accordance with existing stringent directives and regulations, and to confirm at regular intervals that he is able to maintain high standards through a designated CPD programme. CLD is definitely a marketing tool, but not an indicator of, or yardstick for, professional lighting design. And the IALD remains a promoter of their own association and members, but are not officially representative of a profession.
I am seeing increasingly more business cards with “Architect and Lighting Designer” printed on them. Objectively speaking, there is nothing wrong with this. Nobody can forbid architects from designing with light, or developing a lighting design concept and having this realised by a lighting manufacturer. Originally, the architect was responsible for the lighting, which makes me wonder why all architects are not members of the IALD. Are IALD members also allowed to be practising architects? Of course they are, even when their concepts are translated into lighting designs by manufacturers.
The lighting industry understands a lighting designer as someone who is able to specify and apply lighting products meaningfully and correctly – by design, so to speak. In the first place, this sounds fine. And since good quality lighting can only be achieved using high-quality products, it is perfectly rational that projects (and the architects who design them) need lighting specialists. Given their interests, the industry does not differentiate between lighting designers, lighting engineers, architects, interior architects or distributors or planners from their own design teams. The main thing is that experienced professionals are designing lighting and specifying products. Right now, of all the approaches under discussion, this comes across as being the most pragmatic.
To achieve official recognition it is essential that the title Lighting Designer be bestowed by an independent institution. The designer may be a person who works in the lighting industry. Or he/she may be an architect working in the industry. Can this person also be a member of IALD, although he/she is an architect and has evidence of being qualified to design high-quality lighting? No, because the IALD presumes that anyone employed in the industry does not design well enough and would even go as far as to refuse architects recognition.
The problem is that Lighting Design is not clearly defined as a profession in its own right, and that such a definition does not enjoy social and political recognition. Everyone can basically describe – and bend and twist – the term Lighting Design to suit his/her own perception and needs. A definition and recognition of the profession are necessary – like the Gordian Knot, highlighted and disentangled at last by an independent body.
A lighting designer is a specialist who can learn and acquire the evidence-based knowledge and skills required to practise, who is aware of his/her ethical responsibility, and applies his/her know-how in the interest of the user and does not misuse it. Knowledge plus professional ethics.
It is time to set personal interests aside for the benefit of the overall market, to produce a clear definition of what a Lighting Designer is and does, and gain official recognition for the profession at last.
“The Gordian Knot” is a legend of Phrygian Gordium associated with Alexander the Great. It is often used as a metaphor for an intractable problem (disentangling an “impossible” knot) solved easily by “thinking outside the box”.
Lighting management: a key topic in the lighting world in future
When halogen and other incandescent lamps are dimmed they also invariably change colour to a warmer colour temperature – known as ‘warm dimming’ or ‘dim to warm’.
This phenomenon is now considered by many as desirable in numerous applications. These include the hospitality and residential sectors, covering hotels, restaurants and private homes in particular, where the purpose of dimming is typically to change the ambience to something that is warmer and ‘cosier’. Clearly a warmer colour temperature will further enhance this effect.
The solution which Reggiani proposes is to combine two chips in the ‘chip-on-board’ LED so that together these can span a lumen package spectrum capable of providing the maximum designed output when required, while also being able to reproduce the same diffused ambient lighting naturally created when dimming incandescent light sources.
In this arrangement, the power source is a single driver that gradually reduces the amperage input according to the light output desired. As the power to the chips is reduced the temperature mix of their individually fixed colour temperatures is automatically balanced. A gradually decreasing sliding scale, starting from high and ending at the lower of the two maximum and minimum values, coincides exactly with the combined degrees of light output and dimming selected.
This technology can offer a dimming range from 100 per cent down to ten per cent with a very smooth colour temperature transition from a maximum of 3000 K to a minimum of 2000 K. Crucially high lumen maintenance is achieved throughout the warranty period of the light source (typically five years).
While the primary purpose of developing such a twin-chip lamp has been to meet the warm dimming needs of the hospitality and residential sectors, the light source also delivers other very worthwhile benefits in terms of both energy performance and lamp life.
International design competition in Rome linked to PLDC
by Joachim Ritter
A national culture is not only made up of positive phases. Nor is it possible to simply deny positive phases or undesirable political developments in a country – or wilfully destroy cultural heritage in order to eliminate the evidence of a specific era. Monuments that are thousands of years old as well as architecture from the past few decades are an expression of social and political processes and thus deserve to be preserved. Architecture can serve as a positive reminder of bygone times, but also of a warning of less positive historic events.
The EUR district in Rome features a number of examples of the fascist architecture that date back to Mussolini times. Thank goodness we can now put this chapter in our history behind us. Now, more than half a century later, the time has come to accept this architecture for what it is, and regard it objectively for its historic significance. The new conference centre in Rome, designed by Massimiliano Fuksas, gives the City of Rome good reason to initiate this process.
The international design competition for a state-of-the-art lighting scheme for the EUR district addresses the exciting issue of culture, architecture and the significance of lighting in context. In cooperation with the National Council of Italian Architects, Planners, Landscapers and Curators, The Department for the Environment and Sustainability in Rome, AIDI, APIL and the Chamber of Architects, Planners, Landscapers and Curators in Rome, the City of Rome is inviting interdisciplinary teams of planners to tackle this challenge and submit realisable design concepts. How can light preserve the history of a city vividly and meaningfully and at the same time lend an urban quarter a new and modern identity through contemporary design? Light has the power to put architecture in a social and political context.
The competition is open to interdisciplinary teams comprising at least one architect and one lighting designer. As the initiators and organisers of PLDC, we are delighted to have helped provide the impetus to make this design competition happen and thus provide an example to the Italian lighting design community, through the international context, of the changes the lighting design profession is currently undergoing. Through this competition, the international lighting design community can prove that lighting designed by a qualified professional creates added value for the culture of a nation.
We therefore invite all architects and lighting designers to take part in this unique design competition and submit feasible concepts for the given site. The more interest this generates, and the greater the response, the more powerful the arguments will be for the significance of the lighting designer as part of the value chain to deliver quality architectural spaces.
The results of the competition will be presented at PLDC 2015 in Rome and the winners will be announced in a special ceremony. This means that PLDC will not only continue to gain significance with regard to knowledge and trends in lighting design, but also when it comes to official recognition of the profession, thus strengthening its position as an international platform for lighting designers, architects, clients, education and research, the lighting industry and political bodies.
More information and the full Call for Entries will be available from the end of May on this page.
2. Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana
Palazzo dello Sport
Obelisco di Marconi
6. Centro Congressi Nuvola
The Florio Wine Cellars in Marsala
Located on the seafront in Marsala, in spaces once used as a warehouse by the Florio Wine Cellars, Florio Terrace is a project that successfully combines architecture with art and design, reinterpreting the relationship between industrial and contemporary elements.
The structure comprises two different areas: the hall on the ground floor, and the terrace overlooking the sea on the first floor.
The materials chosen distinguish the space by giving it a modern, unfinished feel: sand and cement screed, bare concrete and plaster walls, deliberately left unfinished like the pillars revealed during demolition, which have been left in their attractively imperfect state.
The premises, with its play on volumes and equilibrium, is similar to an art gallery: the staircase between the two floors is an articulated element made of iron, painted glossy white with black steps. The balustrade features different sized holes and cut-outs. Under natural light by day and artificial light by night, this design feature gives rise to discreet but fascinating lighting effects.
Perfectly integrated in this setting are elegant 10 watt and 26 watt directional spotlights with a CRI of up to 94. The white embossed finish of the fixtures blends seamlessly with the texture of the walls, and the use of the product in both white as well as black areas creates balances and contrasts that define the spaces even more powerfully.
Next to the staircase there are three chairs/sculptures in red that allude to the three wine labels: Corvo, Florio and Duca di Salaparuta. The stairs lead up to the splendid 500 square metre terrace with a view of the sea, marked by white gazebos and furnished with sofas, armchairs and tables.
Architect: Franco Marabelli,
In collaboration with: architect Silvio Maglione, and set designer Lino Colombo
Lighting design: Lorenzo Bruscaglioni
Photos: Gionata Xerra