This year PLDC is embarking on an interactive conferencing experiment! All attendees are invited to contribute, comment and interact through the available social media networks. Using LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter and the PLDC App! All interaction will be monitored on the “Post !t” – social media monitors.
And we are starting today! At PLDC 2013 Koert Vermeulen will be presenting a paper on the status quo of the lighting profession and will dare to predict a forecast of the developments over the coming years. First questions have been raised and posted on the PLDC Countdown blog for everyone to comment on! Don’t be shy! Be part of the community and contribute towards shaping the market of the future!!
• What will be the impact of a “title act” or accreditation on the lighting design profession?
o As an example, only 10% of the German professional construction market employs a Lighting Designer, what about the other 90%? Who does that now? And what if that 90% fell into our laps tomorrow?
• What is the state of the lighting design profession in the different parts and countries in the world?
o Lighting design is a very young profession, starting in the 50′s in the US with Kelly and his colleagues carving the first marks into the almighty construction world, trying to get acknowledged by the architects, engineers and construction companies…another duck in the pond. From there the wave also found ground in the UK and Germany where I feel the lighting design profession is at its maturest point right now. From there this new profession has slowly but steadily gained a foothold in the other markets. Even now it is still up to a few individuals to keep stand in some areas like some Baltic countries, Russia, and China – although things are evolving very fast.
• What kind of LD practice do you run? – Basic lighting design? Advanced lighting design? Applying codes? Light Art?
o The lighting design profession is in a constant mode of evolution in terms of scope of services.
Applying the codes: the most basic form
Basic lighting design: plans and sections, specifications, codes, best practice
Advanced lighting design: the design is conveyed through a concept, a narrative, a story. The design is put into place through concept design, schematic design, design development, construction drawings and follow up and finally commissioning
Light art: the highest form of lighting design, where the designer is no longer bound by the usual suspects, but can depict his vision in an artistic expression of form and light. Where do you fit in? Maybe you do all 4? Which one can be considered the right practice for a sustainable future for the lighting design profession?
The paper will be given on Friday in the Professional Practice Issues track.
In a nutshell: The speaker is a qualified lighting designer employed by a local government in Sweden. He will first explain how he as a lighting professional came to work for a municipality and what the job entails, which is not designing all the lighting everywhere in the city! Projects he has managed/designed/coordinated with lighting designers will be shown.
One of the many projects he developed for the City of Malmö is the :by Light festival. Many cities around the world have light festivals on different scales. When Malmö decided to stage a light festival the speaker had a very clear goal and approach: to give visitors and professionals alike the chance to experience new ways of illuminating the urban environment. He will describe the project and the specific elements he wanted to include, draw comparisons with other lighting festivals, which are generally only for immediate and temporary effect, and sum up what has been learnt to date and what the consequences are. As a lighting designer working for the municipality, the speaker had the idea, the contacts and the scope to take Malmö’s lighting activities – and the festival – a step further, reaching out to collaborate with further towns and cities in the region.
The paper will conclude with some thoughts on how the presenter’s role could be replicated in other cities and what opportunities he sees for cities that are open to improving the lighting in their different districts, which is not related to festivals only.
About the speaker: Johan Moritz is a lighting designer with 25 years’ experience in entertainment lighting and lighting in the public realm. He has been employed full-time by the City of Malmö in the Streets and Parks Department since 2002. On a daily basis his work involves collaborating with architects, landscape architects and artists to develop safe and interesting public spaces and promote social sustainability. Johan also lectures at universities and events and teaches hands-on workshops.
Lighting for museums is a high art. Its task is to display the colours of exhibits as true to the original as possible and also to avoid harming them. LED technology from OSRAM installed in the Lenbachhaus municipal art museum in Munich, Germany achieves this and more.
The LED lighting solution was custom-designed by OSRAM for the structural conditions of the Lenbachhaus, and its exhibition rooms are currently the only ones solely illuminated with LED technology. More than 170,000 light emitting diodes and intelligent light control are able to generate almost 100 different colour tones to display works from artists such as Kandinsky and Beuys in the very best light. The mix was programmed to achieve a colour rendering index (CRI) of greater than 95. In comparison, a standard fluorescent lamp for office applications achieves an index of around 80, and halogen lamps achieve 100 – although both are not freely adjustable in terms of colour temperature.
The technology was implemented with four types of luminaire: cove luminaires, light ceiling luminaires, spotlights and so-called shed luminaires. The LED luminaires are installed in the peripheral coves in the historic wing tracts, and in the upper storey of the new building construction light ceiling fields illuminate the exhibition spaces that are in turn backlit by modified LED modules. The shed luminaires supplement daylight ingressing from the skylights (or ‘sheds’) in the upper storeys of the Lenbachhaus, and are installed directly below the windows to radiate, just as natural light does, firstly into the shed constructions and then indirectly into the exhibition rooms.
As well as ensuring perfect art experiences, the conservational aspect or protection of the artworks is of central importance with museum lighting. Fundamentally, the rate of ageing of an artwork does not depend on the method of light generation (incandescent, fluorescent or LED lamp), but from colour spectrum, illuminance and exposure time. Cool colour temperatures are more harmful than warm ones for most materials, and thus most damage potential comes from especially “cool” and invisible UV radiation. As a consequence, unfiltered daylight is the most damaging light source for art. The lighting solution in the Lenbachhaus emits no ultraviolet radiation, and flexible control options make it possible to set the light to warm white if needed. In addition and together with Osram LED developers from Regensburg, the LEDs were specified to protect the material of the artworks as much as possible: with lower colour temperatures less than incandescent lamps, and with higher colour temperatures less than fluorescent lamps and significantly less than daylight.
PLDC is moving with the times. This year we will not only be incorporating collaborative conferencing into our programme, we have also selected a catchy song that we have dubbed our official PLDC Song. We have chosen Asaf Avidan & The Mojos’ hit “One Day”.
The song, like many songs, can be interpreted in different ways. On the surface it is about a couple who have split up. The singer is lamenting the fact that one day he and his lost partner will be old and will not be able to look back on a life full of stories of what the couple has experienced, built up, achieved. He takes the stance that it is not worth wasting too much energy of what might have been – but nevertheless always returns to the thought of growing old without his partner, blaming himself, or both of them, for not being aware of the chances they will miss.
The content would definitely have been appreciated by the likes of Shakespeare or Goethe, or the man next door even. And indeed, one day we will all be old. But we should not forget to put all the good things we have to good use: knowledge, life experience, ideas, philosophies – before it’s too late!
Applying this to our reality, we must ensure that the know-how and skills we have developed and possess today are available for future generations, and that they will continue along the path we have taken. The first lighting designers are now at an age when they already have stories they can tell: of projects they have realised, research they have done, awards they have won, students they have taught. There may have been some clients who were more demanding than expected, or business partners who left them in the lurch, or jobs they didn’t get because a friend of theirs in a different design practice was commissioned to design the lighting for the project of their dreams. But life goes on. There will be more jobs, more songs, more stories to tell. Even if we will be old one day, there is still a lot to learn from each other now, and PLDC is a great platform for people of all ages who are seriously interested in light. Dance on!
We are sure you can also watch the video on Youtube
Download the PLDC song from iTunes.
Lyrics:No more tears my heart is dry
I don’t laugh and I don’t cry
I don’t think about you all the time
But when I do, I wonder why
You had to go out of my door
And leave just like you did before
I know I said that I was sure
But rich men can’t imagine poor
One day baby we’ll be old
Oh baby we’ll be old
And think of all the stories
that we could’ve told
Little me and little you
Kept doing all the things they do
They never really think it through
Like I can never think you’re true
Here I go again – the blame
The guilt, the pain, the hurt, the shame
The founding fathers of our plane
That’s stuck in heavy clouds of rain
One day baby we’ll be old
Oh baby we’ll be old
And think of all the stories
that we could’ve told
The Paper will be presented on Saturday in the Lighting Application Research track.
In a nutshell: Commonly the quality of the daylight in an interior space is characterized by the daylight factor, which is defined as the ratio of the indoor illuminance Ep at point p to the outdoor horizontal illuminance, Eho outside, under an overcast CIE reference sky. Operating with this reference sky, different configurations of building envelope openings and spatial interior volumes can be assessed.
This method does not consider direct solar radiation, thus the orientation of the building and its location on the latitude has no impact on the daylight factor. For the inhabitant, the difference as to whether and how a room has access to direct sunlight is fundamental. Together with colleagues, the speaker has developed a new indicator: the light penetration factor – LPF. The LPF specifies the percentage of a room’s net volume which can feasibly be penetrated by direct sunlight over the course of one day. A CAD-supported computer tool, the LPFvisualizer, has been developed to allow designers to calculate light penetration during the early design stages. Furthermore, a study has been carried out to show the relation between the daylight factor and the light penetration factor, calculating the two indicators for different building samples, comparing locations at 40°, 50° and 60° latitude and in the cardinal directions in 30° steps. The study offers a data set characterizing the interior daylight situation just by linking two single value specifications.
About the presenter: Renate Hammer studied Philosophy and Architecture at the University of Vienna/A, Urban Engineering at the University of Tokyo/J and Solar Architecture at the Danube University Krems/A. Renate was employed at the Centre for Architecture, Construction and Environment at the Danube University in Krems before working as an independent architect from 1999 to 2009. In 2009, she completed her doctorate degree in Architecture at the Technical University in Vienna. Since 2011, she has been the Dean of the Faculty for Education, Arts and Architecture at the Danube University of Krems.
At the Hanover Fair it was rumoured that researchers envisage seeing a new market-ready light source available in 2014.
Text: Joachim Ritter
What has the Hanover Fair got to do with lighting? You don’t understand the question? Then I would guess you are no older than 35 or have not been working in the lighting industry for the last 15 years. That is not connected to my inexplicable skills as a clairvoyant, but is quite simple rooted in the fact that the lighting industry only started presenting their wares at Light+Building in Frankfurt in the year 2000, having turned their backs on the Hanover Fair and the so-called World Light Show. Ever since the fair in Hanover existed, the World Light Show, and Lighting as a technical discipline, formed an integral part of the fair. The success recorded by Light+Building is no secret. Since 2000, the Hanover Fair has been somewhat underexposed when it comes to Light and Lighting.
It is, however, interesting to note that every now and then something from the industrial fair spills over into the lighting world. As it is, this year the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) presented a mercury-free fluorescent lamp. Which works – with the aid of microwave technology.
Professor Rainer Kling and his team have working in earnest for over two years to remove the toxic metal from the lamps – and they have done it. At the 2013 Hanover Fair he presented a series of prototypes by the intriguing name of “3rdPPBulb”. Next year, the lamps are due to go into series production.
The “devil’s metal” will be a thing of the past. And the new lamps are supposed to be even more efficient than conventional ones. Prof. Kling maintains: “We want to achieve the performance of a conventional 75 watt bulb with just 11 or 12 watts”. Compact fluorescent lamps need 16 watts to achieve that. Some LED light sources, which are also mercury-free, do achieve better values, but would be pushing it a bit far to reach the 75 watt benchmark. Prof. Kling estimates a lamp life of around 30,000 hours for his prodigies.
What is the trick behind this invention? In conventional energy-saving lamps the gas mixture is ignited by electrodes. Since mercury already turns into gas at low temperatures, it makes for an optimum luminescent substance.
Non-toxic gases require more heat to make them glow. Kling achieves this using microwaves, a discovery made by a colleague of his from Aachen, who is also involved in the research project. The microwaves ignite the gas externally – the lamp no longer needs any electrodes, which burn out with time. According to the researchers, these microwaves are harmless. “We are talking about the basically same technology that is used for mobile phones or Bluetooth equipment. Right now patent licence negotiations are being conducted with the big manufacturers,” Kling explains. “I presume that our lamp will be available on the market as of next year”.
This technology is not really my domain, which is why I consulted an expert, who in turn gave some thought to the whole topic. Thomas Röding from Insta GmbH took a critical view of the innovation: “In the report they talk about wattages but not about luminous flux. Nothing is publicly known about the efficiency of the lamp. Taking the planned 12 watts for a 75 watt incandescent lamp as a basis would mean a luminous efficacy greater than 70 lumens per watt. That would be substantially better than what the TCL has been able to offer to date, but not enough to derail LED technology. This is where I see the first big hurdle for this technology. It depends on the efficiency of the overall system – that will decide whether the product can even be considered ready for the market.
It is certainly positive that the Karlsruhe team have managed to do away with the electrodes. That is real progress, since electrodes are one of the weak points in fluorescent technology.
The quoted lamp life of 30,000 hours can only be regarded as a laboratory value. In practice, we are often forced to make compromises.
Was eine spätere Serientype leisten kann, essentially depends on a lot more factors. It is interesting to note that the developer regards the lamp life as a disadvantage. Either he does not believe in the product as much as he claims to or he is aware of the problems involved when marketing long-life products.
For a start, you have the codes and standards that a series product is required to meet. That alone can lead to modifications having to be made which can render the product unmarketable – either because of the price or for performance reasons. After all, the lamp needs to fit into the envelopes of the lamps it is supposed to be replacing as well as into the respective lamp holders. That can have a negative effect on heat management.
Then there is the issue of availability of materials. If special expensive elements or components are required, the series will be limited and the price high. Of course, we will have to wait and see what develops, although time is basically running short for this lamp. In my opinion, this development is ten years too late.
What control gear technology is required? Existing gear will not provide the answer. Given current standards, the development of power supply units is complex. It will probably be necessary to apply for an operating permit for this technology, and it can take some time to get that through. Depending on what construction principles evolve, it may be necessary to replace the whole luminaire, which will have a negative impact on the usability of the light source.
Further issues, such as the public acceptance of fluorescent lighting, and fluctuations in luminous flux at different temperatures, indicate that there is still a substantial need for clarification”.
I do not wish to be alarmist, or unduly negative, but it looks like it could be a bit tight for this product to be market-ready by 2014. Is the lighting industry really prepared to open yet another can of worms and challenge the LED? Technology may be exciting, and researchers successful in finding new solutions, but there comes a time when you have to admit that not every technical solution is a real alternative. The project is therefore not likely to win a Nobel Prize, unless the microwave lamps can simultaneously be used to cook a schnitzel. If that were the case, I am sure energy-conscious politicians would be delighted to enforce this technology upon us.
The paper will be presented on Saturday in the Lighting Application Research track.
In a nutshell: The presentation concerns the interaction of people and light. This is a crossroad subject that requires the combination of knowledge from the field of physics, physiology, psychology, and ergonomics. In order to practise efficient lighting design, one needs to understand how lighting can be used to enhance productivity and safety as well as influence comfort, health, perception and behaviour.
Non-visual optical radiation affects human physiology and behaviour both directly and indirectly. The direct effect includes melatonin suppression, elevated cortisol production and increased core body temperature, whereby the indirect effect mainly concerns the resetting of the internal circadian clock. Optical radiation impacts visual, circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral responses.
The presentation will review the science of vision, visual and non-visual pathways, the existence of spectral opponency in the human circadian system, the latest research on visual and non-visual receptors and the effect they have on our body rhythms, health and behaviour. The presentation will also provide a comprehensive overview of the policies and practices of various authorities throughout the world regarding the issue of non-visual optical radiation, including scientific evidence and case studies.
About the presenter: Uthayan completed his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering at the University of Windsor/CDN and his M.Sc. in Architectural Lighting Design at KTH in Stockholm/S.
Since 2006 he has been working for the MMM Group as Senior Project Engineer and Associate where he is responsible for acquiring and managing the preliminary and detailed design of highway and roadway illumination, architectural lighting and signalization projects.
He also teaches at Ryerson University.
The paper will be presented on Friday in the Lighting Application Research track.
In a nutshell: When it comes to how to apply findings on the effect of light on human wellbeing, thankfully the links between research and application are becoming stronger (although there is a long way to go).
The context for the paper is working environments including, offices, schools and hospitals. The research referred to centres around healthcare as these environments, from a research perspective, are tightly controlled, and then considers how this can be applied in other application contexts.
After briefly reviewing some of the latest research findings around spectrum, quantity of light and application the paper focuses on how this is being used in healing environments. The second part of the paper focuses on critical areas such as Uptake Rooms (used for cancer analysis) and shows how ongoing research is indicating that false positive results can be positively influenced by reducing anxiety in patients, and the role light plays in this.
About the presenter: Matthew studied in Huddersfield/UK and graduated with a BA Honours in Business and Marketing. He continued with a Master of Science in Light and Lighting in architecture. He worked for Ecophon, DPA Lighting, Concord Lighting and Groupe Sonepar in Lyon before he joined Philips in 2004. He was the team manager of Philips Professional Lighting South East Asia in Singapore and is currently working for Philips Professional Lighting Europe in Eindhoven/NL. As lighting application team manager, he and his team drive architectural lighting design, application education and innovative product development and research.
He has been a speaker at numerous conferences and schools such as Parsons the New School for Design in New York City/USA.
The paper will be presented in the Sustainable Lighting + Design track.
In a nutshell: In North America, the close relationship between the United States and Canada generally results in cooperation and formal standards and organizational structures, such as IESNA. Moreover, the similarity of business practices makes recognition of certifications and society memberships more-or-less interchangeable. But differences remain. This report is representative of the history, current status and prediction of future efforts in both countries.
About the prersenter: Jim Benya, FIESNA, FIALD is a lighting designer and educator. He has served on the Board of the IALD and NCQLP, where he also served on the Test Committee. He is on the Board of the International Dark Sky Association and part of the California Energy Commission Advanced Lighting Advisory Group. He has been an adjunct professor at key Universities in the USA, is the author of two books and writes for renowned journals.